Then, while still moving the pan around or side to side, lower it back into the river so that the sediment is just below the surface of the water. Ensure the pan is slightly tilted forward, with the ridges (“riffles”) facing forwards. Swirl the contents round and round, up and down, and back and forth to create a strong movement of water. The water should flow over the sides of the pan with all the lightest material flowing out with it. (Gold is heavier than most of this sediment, so will remain in the pan.) The trick is to ensure that the sediment comes out gradually over the edge of the pan, while ensuring there is enough turbulence to “lift” the lighter material. Repeat Stage d at least four times and, every time you have finished, refill the pan with water.